King William III- Mary I was the daughter of James II. She and her husband William III were invited to take the throne from her father after his pro-catholic leanings were proving problematic to the Church of England and Parliament.
Queen Anne- The sister of Mary I, the last Stuart monarch. She declared that the monarchy after her would pass though the next branch of the James I line.
King George I- Born in Hanover, later known as Germany. He is the first Hanoverian king of Great Britain. He was the great-grandson of King James I. He did not speak English.
King George II- George I’s son. Disliked by his father. He was also born in Hanover. He was heavily involved in foreign affairs, getting Britain involved in the War for Austrian Secession. Was also king during the Seven Year’s War in which Britain gained territories.
King George III- Grandson of George II. He is the king that the American’s fought against in the Revolution.
William III dies, Anne takes the throne in 1702.
England and Scotland are united under the name Great Britain by The Act of Union in 1707.
Queen Anne dies and George I is crowned in 1714.
George II takes the crown after his father’s death in 1727.
Britain adopts the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, leading to some confusion over the dates.
The Seven Years War Begins in 1756 between France and Great Britain, it also part of the larger wars raging in Europe and beyond in this midcentury.
The British Colonization of India is finalized as Robert Clive defeats the Bengali leader in 1757.
King George II dies and King George III takes the throne in 1760.
The American Revolution begins in 1775, with the Declaration of Independence following the year later. What will become the United States of America is officially free from British rule in 1783.
The French Revolution beings 1789 and lasts until 1799. This was a war between the ruling upper classes and the lower classes.
Art and Authors:
George Frederic Handel- Was a composer of Operas. Very Popular in Britain. Most known for in modern times writing Messiah (1741).
Mozart- A composer famous for his operas was working during the latter half of the 18thcentury. Much of his work is still played and performed today.
The Rococo style is pioneered in this century. It is similar to the baroque but noticeably lighter in tone and adornment.
Immanuel Kant- A German philosopher who change the way we view knowledge, ethics and philosophy. He also promoted the idea that nothing is certain.
Thomas Paine- Born in England, became an American wrote Common Sense A leading political pamphlet that led to the American Revolution.
The Italian Comedia Del Arte style is revived in Italy in 1740. Commedia leads the way for many of the comedic forms we enjoy today, such as sketch comedy.
The symphony is developed in the 18thcentury.
Religious /Social Movements:
The Enlightenment continues, this was the search for a “universal truth” (Hudson 23) This was the search for the truth of the universe, the truth of humans, the search was for an explanation of everything. It was a more philosophic movement.
The Scientific Revolution continued into this century. It run concurrently with the Enlightenment period, and though similar in looking for truth, the scientific revolution was focused on finding empirical evidence of the truths, not philosophy. Newton, Descartes and Locke are credited with being involved in this movement. One of the greatest contributions of this movement is the scientific method, a series of steps and checks used in scientific fields to prove a theory.
The Industrial Revolution begins in 1760. This comes on the heels of inventions such as the piston steam engine, which was first created by Newccomen in 1710. The Industrial Revolution marked the end for home industries in both Great Britain and North America. As work became more automated factories began to crop up and were able to produce the same goods as home craftsmen but at a cheaper and faster rate. This is the beginning of the modern age